Even senior military leaders voiced their opposition to the plans to go to war. 3170x6166 / 5 Mb Go to Map. Before the grand opening of the Riksdag in 1789, King Gustav III had the Riksdag Music commissioned. Sweden repelled the Russians less than a month later. However, the whole concept was based on the assumption that the Swedish open sea fleet would be able to decisively defeat its Russian counterpart. The Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) in its report published at the beginning of February claims that Russia is preparing to begin and conduct a large-scale war. The Swedish forces were repeatedly reinforced during the summer and already in mid-July consisted of 2 frigates, 10 galleys and several gunboats. The Russian fleet had already in early August, soon after the Battle of Hogland, moved to blockade the Swedish open sea fleet in Sveaborg, as the Swedes were unable to get their fleet ready for battle. This could partly be explained by the still remaining supporters of Georg Magnus Sprengtporten's plans for Finnish independence. [11], Attempts by Colonel Berndt Johan Hastfer's 1,700-man-strong Savolax brigade to storm Nyslott by surprise on 2 July ended in a siege which, given the besiegers' total lack of siege artillery, caused the Swedish advance to bog down. Stockholm fiercely disapproved of the Soviet attack on Finland on November 30, 1939. However, attempts to capture the town and its fortifications failed. The coastal fleet's Sveaborg squadron under Colonel Michael Anckarsvärd had been readied for action already by mid-June. The war being perceived illegal as it didn't have the support of the estates, along with its lack of success, contributed to rising unrest. This unpopularity was also encouraged by Russia, which believed an autocratic king to be a threat to its interests. The war resulted in the decline of Swedish influence and the emergence of Russia as a major power in that region. Bataille de Tsushima.svg 512 × 724; 541 KB. King Gustav III's position, surrounded by rebellious officers, was greatly improved when news of a threat of war from Denmark–Norway became known and he could head back to Sweden on 25 August without being accused of deserting his troops.[12]. Instead of blockading the town, the Swedes chose to continue further towards Vyborg while raiding Russian supplies along the coast, and reached the Beryozovye Islands on 2 June, from where it attempted to support the open sea fleet in the battle of Kronstadt. [24] The Russian Vice-Chancellor Bezborodko immediately agreed to negotiations, and the war was ended by the Treaty of Värälä on 14 August. As in the previous year, the battle was indecisive, with the Swedes heading to Karlskrona and the Russian fleet joining up with a Russian squadron from Danish waters. 1554-1557 Swedish-Russian War 1563-1570, Swedish-Danish War. From $29.95 VIEW DETAILS. The coastal fleet especially was being reinforced with new and stronger ships, some of them donated by the various Swedish towns. The Swedish attack on Russia caused Denmark-Norway to declare war on Sweden in August, in accordance with its treaty obligations to Russia. Sveaborg was set as the forward base of operations for the campaign. Social and Cultural Dynamics, vol.3 (1937, 1962), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Russo-Swedish_War_(1788–1790)&oldid=995144044, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Black, Jeremy "War in the early modern world" page. Even though the Swedish main effort was on the sea, they attacked also on land, where Swedes led by Colonel Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt defeated Russian defenders on 15 April in southern Savolax, while the army led by King Gustav III and Colonel Gustav Wachtmeister won another victory in the battle of Valkeala. The Russo-Swedish War of 1788–1790, known as Gustav III's Russian War in Sweden, Gustav III's War in Finland and Catherine II's Swedish War in Russia, was fought between Sweden and Russia from June 1788 to August 1790. [22], The Russian fleet, under command of Admiral Vasily Chichagov, blockaded the Swedish fleets with their 30,000 men in Viborg Bay. Sweden Location Map. [14] The bulk of the Swedish army in Finland, consisting of 13,000 men under General Johan August Meijerfeldt (the younger), was placed at the Kymmene river, with a further 5,000 men in Savolax. Click the map and drag to move the map around. Finnish War (1808–1809) Resulted in the eastern third of Sweden being established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian control. General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt's 4,000 men were to support the coastal fleet's capture of Frederikshamn and crossed the border on 18 July, reaching its staging ground just north of Frederikshamn on 20 July. A small detachment, under command of James Travene, from the Russian fleet cut the safe coastal sea route past Hangö in late August 1788. [7], In 1788, a head tailor of the Royal Swedish Opera received an order to sew a number of Russian military uniforms that later were used in an exchange of gunfire at Puumala, a Swedish outpost on the Russo-Swedish border, on 27 June 1788. Original British WWII & Gulf War Silk Map of Iraq - Baghdad & Basra. 2000x4354 / 0,98 Mb Go to Map. Vintage Military Maps from WW2 and earlier for sale at International Military Antiques. A series of conflicts between the 12th and 14th centuries. From $14.95 VIEW DETAILS. This was followed by an attack against the main staging ground of the Swedish coastal fleet at Svensksund, leading to the first battle of Svensksund. Including an attempt to put a Swedish duke on the Russian throne. In addition, a determined effort was made to bolster the strength of the fleets as much as possible so as to be able to get them under sail as soon as possible. After receiving reinforcements, the Swedes managed on 17 October to engage large Russian units for long enough for the small gunboats to slip past the blockade and protect the transports west of the cape, which probably saved the transports containing army and fleet supplies from capture. The battered Swedish coastal fleet was soon reinforced with ships from Sveaborg, while its commander Admiral Carl August Ehrensvärd was replaced, first by Colonel Karl Nathanael af Klercker, who oversaw the repairs, and later by Lieutenant-Colonel Georg Kristian de Frese. The war solved Gustav III's domestic problems only briefly, as he was assassinated at the opera in Stockholm, in 1792. Since Sveaborg could not repair and refit the ships of the open sea fleet, it had to set sail for Karlskrona. However, Russian support for his opposition did not go unnoticed by Gustav III, and was one of the reasons why he thought of the war as inevitable. 29 February 2020. Battle of Japan Sea (Route of Baltic Fleet) NT.PNG 700 × 500; 90 KB. His forces advanced towards Nyslott and won several engagements against the Russians, first at Parkuinmäki Hill and later at Laitaatsilta. This was important since Gustav III did not have the constitutional right to start an offensive war without the agreement of the estates, who had already made clear that their acceptance would not be forthcoming. Sweden 1680-1718 1611-1613 Swedish-Danish War 1611-1617 Russo-Swedish War 1620-1629 Swedish-Polish War 1630-1648 30 Years' War, Sweden … Atlas of The Second World War: Asia and the Pacific (Wayne, NJ: SquareOne Publishing Group, Inc., 1985). His government was also rapidly suffering from ever-increasing debt caused by the war expenses. Sweden road map. This looks nowhere close to Sweden or Gamla stan, Stockholm. During the last decade, Russian military exercises have been intensifying year by year. Fought for control of Old Livonia in the territory of present-day. Position your mouse over the map and use your mouse-wheel to zoom in or out. [19], In 1790, King Gustav revived the plan for a landing close to Saint Petersburg, this time near Viborg. However, inspired Russian resistance in the early hours of 4 August convinced the Swedish landing force to return to its ships. The Western powers — such as Great Britain, the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Prussia — were alarmed by a string of Russian victories in the Russo-Turkish War (1787–92) and lobbied for the war in the north, which would have diverted the attention of Catherine II of Russia from the Southern theatre. It reached its destination of Sveaborg on 2 July and started constructing an encampment on the island of Sandhamn, next to Helsingfors. Fighting at sea near Porkala cape continued until September. Despite recent success, King Gustav III believed that his chances of successfully continuing the war were low. Sweden cedes the towns of Lappeenranta and Hamina and a strip of Finland to the northwest of Saint Petersburg to Russia. Fighting on land, however, reached stalemate, and already in June had turned into static warfare. It never looked like this now or back in the days. You can also see the distance in miles and km below the map. [15], In stark contrast to Swedish troubles, the Russian open sea fleet had set sail already in mid-May; by 22 May a few ships reconnoitered the Swedish defenses at Hangö, but after a short engagement the Russian ships chose to break off. This caused severe supply troubles for the Swedish fleets and armies, which were mostly east of the cape. Map of Sweden in Europe Detailed Map of Sweden and Surrounding Countries Political Map of Sweden with Cities . Swedish squadrons from Stockholm started towards Sveaborg on 21 April and also from Pommern on 3 May. [clarification needed] The Parliament then decided on the creation of a National Debt Office to raise funds and finance the war, a move that gave rise to a wave of inflation of the Swedish Riksdaler. Also he was becoming increasingly unpopular, an issue which became obvious during the parliament session of 1786. Online Map of Sweden. [6], War was far from popular, even less so in the eastern part of Sweden (Finland). Upon return to Sveaborg to repair and resupply Duke Charles' fleet, the Swedes found that Sveaborg had been stocked only with coastal fleet in mind, which amongst other things meant that it didn't store ammunition for the heavy cannons of the open sea fleet and lacked suitable stocks of equipment required to repair large sailing ships. [20], The Swedish open sea fleet under Duke Charles arrived on 10 May at Hangö and moved on 12 May to the vicinity of Reval. 46 (regarding the Russian plans in the mediterranean), Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Eighteenth Century, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 13:45. The Liberal government under Prime Minist… The Russian attack against Barösund started on 18 September. The Russian blockade at Porkala was after 24 August 1789 under the command of Captain James Trevenen, who started the effort to break the Swedish hold on Barösund. The Russian coastal fleet, led by Charles Henry of Nassau-Siegen started its attack against the Swedes on 9 July 1790, in what became known as the second battle of Svensksund, which ended in a decisive Swedish victory.[23]. see also 1558-1582 Livonian War 1570-1595, Russo-Swedish War 1600-1611, Swedish-Polish War 1611-1718 ..... go to narrative history of Sweden Sweden 1611-1654. Battle of Japan Sea (Route of Baltic Fleet).jpg … Since the Swedish wanted to avoid initiating the conflict they had lost their chance to provoke the Russians into war and were left empty-handed. Atlas of World War II (Richard Natkiel. The staged attack, which caused outrage in Stockholm, was to convince the Riksdag of the Estates and to provide Gustav with an excuse to declare a "defensive" war on Russia. However, preparations and unsuitable weather delayed departure until 20 November, when the sea at Sveaborg was already frozen over and some ships had to be freed by sawing the ice open for them. Russia has also carried out military maneuvers in the region. Despite a clear victory at the Battle of Porrassalmi, the Swedish army was forced to withdraw, leaving the important Puumala straits to the Russians. At the outbreak of the First World War, Swedish defence expenditures had been growing steadily for decades. Sweden's border with Norway is covered by the Scandinavian Mountains, or in Swedish, the Kolen (or Kjolen) Mountains. Robert Cronin) blocking the coastal sea route near modern-day Virolahti and had to return to Svensksund. The Swedish attack foiled the Russian plans of sending its navy into the Mediterranean to support its forces fighting the Ottomans, as it was needed to protect the capital, Saint Petersburg. While the troops still lacked supplies, their discipline and morale had been greatly improved from what it had been in 1788. [7], The Swedish open sea fleet sailed from Karlskrona on 9 June 1788, with Duke Charles of Södermanland as its commander. The raging epidemic then confined the Swedish fleet to Karlskrona for most of the year. Incidentally, Russian forces were not totally unprepared for the war since the bulk of the Russian Baltic Fleet was planned to be transferred against the Ottoman Empire and had made preparations of its own for war. However, only the Ottoman Empire was willing to ally with Sweden while Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, and Prussia rejected efforts to form an alliance.[5]. Sweden cancels Russia diplomatic boycott for last-16 World ... Sweden Faces the Russian Threat in the Baltic Sea | Warsaw ... Sweden's 'Singing Sailor' has message for Russian subs . Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) Also known as the Hats' Russian War. Thus, instead of its traditional declaration of neutrality, Sweden instead proclaimed itself a ‘non-warring’ state, which entailed the following: the country would not take part in the Winter War, but reserved the right to assist Finland in any cap… The Swedish escape from the Viborg Bay started on 3 July and lost several ships when they ran aground due to bad visibility in the treacherous waters. Although not a NATO member, Sweden participates in military exercises with the transatlantic alliance members. [10], The coastal fleet's Stockholm's squadron departed for Finland on 25 June, carrying over 9,000 troops. Other articles where Russo-Swedish Wars is discussed: Sweden: The reign of Gustav II Adolf: The war with Russia was fought more successfully, however, with Swedish armies even reaching Moscow. They are all words of propaganda. Legal. Starting already in early July, Swedish gunboats engaged the much larger Russians on a daily basis, under the command of Admiral Salomon von Rajalin, who was in overall command of the Swedish coastal fleet in the Porkala region. A small coastal fleet detachment under Lieutenant-Colonel Victor von Stedingk sortied to drive off the Russians, but lacked the strength to do so. Where to categorize or find maps of Sweden; If the map shows Category to use Sweden on a recently created map : Category:Maps of Sweden or its subcategories : Sweden on a map created more than 70 years ago : Category:Old maps of Sweden or its subcategories : the history of Sweden on a recently created map : Category:Maps of the history of Sweden or its subcategories A few days later, the Russians abandoned their position, allowing Swedish transports to deliver supplies unhindered. 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