However, neither of these accounts mentions Polo or indeed any European as part of the bridal party,[98] and Wood used the lack of mention of Polo in these works as an example of Polo's "retelling of a well-known tale". El relato de sus viajes, inspiró, entre otros, a Cristóbal Colón que poseía un ejemplar del libro cuidadosamente anotado. Historian Stephen G. Haw argued that the Great Walls were built to keep out northern invaders, whereas the ruling dynasty during Marco Polo's visit were those very northern invaders. [147], Croatian state-owned shipping company's (Jadrolinija) ship connecting Split with Ancona in Italy is named after Marco Polo.[148]. He also noted that the only Persian source that mentions the princess was not completed until 1310–11, therefore Marco Polo could not have learned the information from any Persian book. Reviewing Haw's book, Peter Jackson (author of The Mongols and the West) has said that Haw "must surely now have settled the controversy surrounding the historicity of Polo's visit to China". [36], They continued overland until they arrived at Kublai Khan's place in Shangdu, China (then known as Cathay). II, "GREGORIO X, beato in "Enciclopedia dei Papi, "F. Wood's Did Marco Polo Go To China? The party sailed to the port of Singapore,[77] travelled north to Sumatra,[78] and sailed west to the Point Pedro port of Jaffna under Savakanmaindan and to Pandyan of Tamilakkam. Gio. Algunos autores afirman que Marco Polo (o también a veces incluso Maffeo y Niccoló) solo llegó a algún lugar de Asia central, como Bujará o Karakórum y que todos los detalles sobre China proceden de escritos persas o relatos de segunda mano. In Encyclopædia Britannica. [31] Their decision to leave Constantinople proved timely. Marco and his uncle Maffeo financed other expeditions, but likely never left Venetian provinces, nor returned to the Silk Road and Asia. El primer viaje de la familia Polo-sin Marco- por la Ruta de la … Kublai received the brothers with hospitality and asked them many questions regarding the European legal and political system. [90], Since its publication, some have viewed the book with skepticism. He was probably caught by Genoans in a skirmish in 1296, off the Anatolian coast between Adana and the Gulf of Alexandretta[42] (and not during the battle of Curzola (September 1298), off the Dalmatian coast,[43] a claim which is due to a later tradition (16th century) recorded by Giovanni Battista Ramusio. [95], Modern studies have further shown that details given in Marco Polo's book, such as the currencies used, salt productions and revenues, are accurate and unique. En tiempos de Marco Polo este Gran Kan era Kublai Kan. El mundo conocido por los europeos no iba mucho más allá del actual Oriente Medio. [56], He divided up the rest of his assets, including several properties, among individuals, religious institutions, and every guild and fraternity to which he belonged. Gracias a ello llegó a conocer las vastas regiones de China y los numerosos logros de la civilización china, muchos de los cuales eran más avanzados que los contemporáneos europeos. [27] Polo is clearly mentioned again after 1305 in Maffeo's testament from 1309–1310, in a 1319 document according to which he became owner of some estates of his deceased father, and in 1321, when he bought part of the family property of his wife Donata. El viaje de Marco Polo por Asia. [37], They returned to Venice in 1295, after 24 years, with many riches and treasures. [41]​[42]​, El videojuego Uncharted 2 se inspira en las aventuras de Marco Polo, donde Nathan Drake busca la Piedra Cintamani y sigue su rastro hasta Shambala.[43]​. [19], Since Dominican fathers had among their missions that of evangelizing foreign peoples (cf. Their return to Italy in order to "go to Venice and visit their household" is described in The Travels of Marco Polo as follows: "...they departed from Acre and went to Negropont, and from Negropont they continued their voyage to Venice. Marco Polo (c.1254–January 8, 1324) was a Venetian merchant and explorer who followed in the footsteps of his father and uncle. Also in reply to Wood, Jørgen Jensen recalled the meeting of Marco Polo and Pietro d'Abano in the late 13th century. Hay que tener en cuenta que para aquella época, Marco Polo y su familia no eran los únicos que habían viajado a Asia. [54] He also set free Peter, a Tartar servant, who may have accompanied him from Asia,[55] and to whom Polo bequeathed 100 lire of Venetian denari. No está claro cómo llegó Marco a la prisión genovesa, donde se relata que en 1298 conoció a «Rusticiaus» de Pisa. Tras desviarse a Jerusalén para hacerse con el aceite de la lámpara del Santo Sepulcro, siguieron viaje hasta Layas donde se enteraron de que la elección papal había recaído precisamente en Tedaldo Visconti, que adoptó el nombre de Gregorio X. Regresaron de inmediato a Acre, en una galera facilitada por el rey León III de Armenia Menor, donde Visconti les facilitó nuevas credenciales además de hacer que les acompañaran dos frailes dominicos, aunque estos pronto abandonaron el largo viaje.[16]​. El mismo Cristóbal Colón tenía una copia, con anotaciones manuscritas suyas en los márgenes, que todavía se conserva. [135] Economic historian Mark Elvin, in his preface to Vogel's 2013 monograph, concludes that Vogel "demonstrates by specific example after specific example the ultimately overwhelming probability of the broad authenticity" of Polo's account. [54] To write and certify the will, his family requested Giovanni Giustiniani, a priest of San Procolo. Marco Polo (Venecia, c. 15 de septiembre de 1254-ib., 8 o 9 de enero de 1324) ​ ​ fue un mercader y viajero italiano, ​ ​ ​ famoso por los relatos que se le atribuyen sobre el viaje a Asia Oriental, manuscritos por Rustichello de Pisa con el título original de Il Milione, y conocido en español como Los viajes de Marco Polo, narración que dio a conocer en la Europa medieval las tierras y civilizaciones del Asia Central y China. ", Le Moyen Age, vol. [44][45] ), He spent several months of his imprisonment dictating a detailed account of his travels to a fellow inmate, Rustichello da Pisa,[29] who incorporated tales of his own as well as other collected anecdotes and current affairs from China. . [113] Igor de Rachewiltz's review, which refutes Wood's points, concludes with a strongly-worded condemnation: "I regret to say that F. W.'s book falls short of the standard of scholarship that one would expect in a work of this kind. His writings about China and the Mongol Empire in "The Travels of Marco Polo" had a significant impact on European beliefs about and behavior toward the East and inspired the travels of Christopher Columbus. [93] Many have questioned whether he had visited the places he mentioned in his itinerary, whether he had appropriated the accounts of his father and uncle or other travelers, and some doubted whether he even reached China, or that if he did, perhaps never went beyond Khanbaliq (Beijing). [28][29] Niccolò and his brother Maffeo set off on a trading voyage before Marco's birth. Born in Venice, Marco learned the mercantile trade from his father and his uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. Peter D'Abano kept the drawing in his volume "Conciliator Differentiarum, quæ inter Philosophos et Medicos Versantur". ", Since the siege was over in 1273, before Marco Polo had arrived in China for the first time, the claim cannot be true[115][124] The Mongol army that besieged Xiangyang did have foreign military engineers, but they were mentioned in Chinese sources as being from Baghdad and had Arabic names. Murió en 1324 y lo enterraron en la iglesia de San Lorenzo de su ciudad. El Imperio mongol fue instituido por Genghis Kan en 1206. No obstante, hay quienes afirman que su verdadero nombre y apellido eran Marc Pol, apellido que, efectivamente, tuvo su primera aparición en Dalmacia. They became worried about returning home safely, believing that if Kublai died, his enemies might turn against them because of their close involvement with the ruler. Rustichello wrote Devisement du Monde in Franco-Venetian. En los relatos se afirma que Marco Polo fue gobernador durante tres años de la ciudad china de, También según su relato, los Polo ayudaron a. Esta página se editó por última vez el 19 ene 2021 a las 20:19. [67] The popular translation published by Penguin Books in 1958 by R. E. Latham works several texts together to make a readable whole. These observations are only compatible with Marco's stay in China, Sumatra and the South China Sea[112] and are recorded in Pietro's book Conciliator Differentiarum, but not in Marco's Book of Travels. [33][34][25] Meanwhile, Marco Polo's mother died, and an aunt and uncle raised him. Larner John, Marco Polo and the discovery of the world, Yale University Press, 1999. Marco Polo faleceu em Veneza, Itália, no dia 8 de janeiro de 1324. His accounts are therefore unlikely to have been obtained second hand. For close relationships. A su regreso de China en 1295 (escoltando a una princesa china llamada Kokacín), la familia de Marco Polo se estableció en Venecia donde se convirtió en una sensación y atrajo a multitud de oyentes, que a duras penas creían sus historias sobre la lejana China. [28] His father later married Floradise Polo (née Trevisan). [cita requerida]. [109] Haw also argues in his book Marco Polo's China that Marco's account is much more correct and accurate than has often been supposed and that it is extremely unlikely that he could have obtained all the information in his book from second-hand sources. [29] The exact date of their arrival is unknown, but scholars estimate it to be between 1271 and 1275. [115] In fact, in the 1960s the German historian Herbert Franke noted that all occurrences of Po-lo or Bolod (an Altaic word meaning "steel") in Yuan texts were names of people of Mongol or Turkic extraction. [89] In fact, a Mongol delegate was solemny baptised at the Second Council of Lyon. En 1271, Marco Polo se unió a su padre y su tío en su viaje a Asia; tomaron con ellos dos sacerdotes. En los relatos de Marco Polo, también se describen otros aspectos de la vida en Asia Oriental, con mucho detalle: el papel moneda, el Gran Canal, la estructura del ejército mongol, los tigres y el sistema postal imperial. The book soon spread throughout Europe in manuscript form, and became known as The Travels of Marco Polo (Italian title: Il Milione, lit. Existen discrepancias entre los historiadores sobre el hecho de que Marco Polo haya realizado efectivamente los viajes que se le atribuyen, en particular aquellos … [79] Eventually Polo crossed the Arabian Sea to Hormuz. Marco Polo gave Pietro other astronomical observations he made in the Southern Hemisphere, and also a description of the Sumatran rhinoceros, which are collected in the Conciliator. According to the 15th-century humanist Giovanni Battista Ramusio, his fellow citizens awarded him this nickname when he came back to Venice because he kept on saying that Kublai Khan's wealth was counted in millions. Marco Polo. Let Marco Polo help you make the most of your trip. Esto se consiguió en gran parte a los matrimonios convenidos con varias de las familias de la más alta nobleza de Venecia, entre las que se encontraron los Querini, Bragadín, Trevisán, Delfín, Gradénigo, Contarini y Vendramín. The travels of Marco Polo are fictionalised in a number works, such as: This article is about the trader and explorer. A year later, they went to Ukek[69] and continued to Bukhara. [6]​, Existen discrepancias entre los historiadores sobre el hecho de que Marco Polo haya realizado efectivamente los viajes que se le atribuyen, en particular aquellos que lo ubican en Mongolia y China, de los que proviene su celebridad.[7]​. The 1938 English translation by A.C. Moule and Paul Pelliot is based on a Latin manuscript found in the library of the Cathedral of Toledo in 1932, and is 50% longer than other versions. They sailed to Acre, and then rode on camels to the Persian port of Hormuz. 1 Marco Polo creció en Venecia en la Edad Media. A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan. (2003) "Iranian Settlement East of the Pamirs", in Ehsan Yarshater, Morgan, D.O. [54] He also wrote off multiple debts including 300 lire that his sister-in-law owed him, and others for the convent of San Giovanni, San Paolo of the Order of Preachers, and a cleric named Friar Benvenuto. [22]​, Marco Polo murió, después de redactar testamento, entre la puesta del sol y la medianoche del domingo 8 de enero de 1324,[23]​ fecha que podría corresponder al 9 de enero debido a la ley veneciana que fijaba el final del día en el momento de la puesta del sol. [102] It has also been noted by other scholars that many of the things not mentioned by Marco Polo such as tea and chopsticks were not mentioned by other travellers as well. 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